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插画形象绘制过程详解(翻译理论)

Creating Precision Character Design
Designing a character can apply to both personal and professional projects and the character can be a mascot that works in context of a multi-national brand or it can simply be inspired by a well-known character within pop culture. The later is usually referred to as "Fan Art" and that is what this tutorial covers.
卡通形象,可以是一个混合品牌的吉祥物,也可以是简单的从流行的卡通形象衍生而来。下面我们就来看看这个怎么衍生吧。

00_The_Original: 

The character "Mickey Rat" first appeared in the early 1970's as a subversive underground comic that I enjoyed as a kid. Many artists over the years have taken their own approach with the character and this session goes over my creation of this vectorized vermin.
米老鼠是上世纪70年代早期的卡通形象,许多人改造通过各种方式改变这个形象,我也是其中的一个。

01_Thumbnailing, 02_Isolating_A_Direction, 03_Rat_Reference, 04_Tight_Rough, 05_Head_Sketch_Detail: 

Even though our industry may be digitally driven, ideas are still best developed in analog form. Meaning, you should always work out your ideas by sketching out your visual explorations before you ever jump on a computer.
虽然现在电脑数码横飞,但是创意最好的表达方式还是一样的。也就是,在你准备一头扎进电脑之前,创意应该已经手绘出来了,成型了。
Good reference, is a must if you are creating a parody such as "Mickey Rat." But with my character I wanted to infuse him with my own personal aesthetic, gleaning attributes from my references that reinforce the subversive stereotype. With character design, universally recognizable visual stereotypes are a good thing.
如果你创作一个形象的,不如米老鼠的衍生物,好的参考是必须的。但是我的这个形象是有我自己的想法及性格在里面的,在我的创作中,普遍的可视的“属性”是不可或缺的。
When I use the term "Stereotype" I'm talking about the specific attributes that make something what it is. For example, if you were drawing an alley cat, the ears should be pointed rather than rounded and so forth.
所谓的“属性”就是事物一些特殊的独有的特征,例如,如果你画一只野猫,耳朵就应该是尖的而不是圆的。
It helps to roughly draw out your art using vellum or tracing paper. Combine that with a light table and it's far easier to make adjustments, redraw, erase until you get your over all composition nailed down.
使用描图纸、光影桌,很容易校对、修正、涂抹,直到有个满意的形象。
06_Refined_Sketch: 

Once you have your "Rough Sketch" done you'll need to draw it out more precisely. Think of this stage as laying a foundation for your vector building. What you are doing is drawing out exactly how you need to build your vector shapes in your drawing program.
有了初稿就需要进一步细化了。这一步是整个形象设计的基础。你要做的就是非常准确的画出形象的外轮廓。
This will let you see before you start building your vector shapes how your art is going to look. Doing this will save you time because you'll remove all the guess work when it comes to the build stage, you're simply creating what you've already pre-determined in your "Refined Sketch." This approach is a good general rule but like all rules there are exceptions, but normally this methodology will apply to your project despite the specific style you may be working in.
这会让你在进行矢量绘制前就看到你的宝宝的雏形。这样也会节省很多时间,因为在你开始矢量绘制的时候不用再去猜测,只需要按照已经有的手绘线条勾画就好了。
I usually try to draw my art out either larger than what I need or at 100%. I also draw my refined sketch out using a mechanical pencil so my line work is fine and sharp so when I go to use it as my template to build on top of in my drawing program it serves as my vector road map.
我常常一比一或者更大的画出形象,也会用工程铅笔修正我的形象,所以我的手绘线条光滑完美,当进行矢量绘制时,手绘稿就好比我的地图。
Notice how I draw my art out with "Shapes" in mind. That is important because when I go to build it I'll build using shapes, not strokes.
注意,我绘制形象用的“填充”,这是很重要的,因为开始矢量绘制的时候,我使用的是填充绘制,而不是描边。

07_Building_Vectors:

 
If you've drawn out your art precisely with your "Refined Sketch" than you simply scan it in, place it into your drawing program and lock it on it's own layer. From that point it's all about building the art in vectors following your precise drawing as a template for building your vector shapes.
把修正稿扫描,放在电脑里,锁定,然后就开始矢量绘制吧。

08_Circle_Shapes:

 
Building vector artwork goes two ways. Either it's point by point or using shape tools like the ellipse as in this case. The more you can learn when and where to use these methods the faster your build time will go and the more precise it'll be. (More about this in the next few steps)
矢量绘制有两个方法。点或者面。面比如用椭圆形工具。在适当的地方和时间应用适当方法,绘图的速度也就越快。

09_Not_Perfect1, 10_Not_Perfect2, 11_Not_Perfect3, 12_Not_Perfect4, 13_Not_Perfect5: 

If you do build using shapes there is nothing saying you have to keep it mathematically precise. Meaning for example on this characters nose I purposely distorted the perfectly shaped ellipse to not just match my drawing but make it less predictable. The more you can do this the less sterile your digital art will be, since vector art runs the risk of looking too good, too clean at times.
使用面绘制也不是说一定要保证绝对的几何形状,比如这个例子,完美的椭圆和我的手绘不能完全匹配,就可以调整椭圆。你的矢量作品越追求几何上的完美,你的作品就越没有效果,因为看起来太好太干净了,这样也是在冒险有时候。

14_Circle_Building1, 15_Circle_Building2, 16_Circle_Building3, 17_Circle_Building4, 18_Circle_Building5, 19_Circle_Building6: 


Not all vector building has to be done with the pen tool. Another method for building vector shapes is called "Shape Building."
钢笔不是唯一的绘制工具,还可以用面。
The vector art you see in the eyes, buttons, hole in the shoe, and ear ring have all been created with "Shape Building" methods. For example I created the tongue in this characters mouth using nothing but the "Ellipse Tool" and the "PathFinder Palette."

A. My refined sketch of the tongue.
B. Four basic ellipse shapes to form my drawing.
C. Select two of the ellipse shapes and "Minus Front" using the PathFinder Palette.
D. Select two ellipse shapes and "Unite" using the PathFinder Palette.
E. Select remaining two shapes and "Intersect" using the PathFinder Palette.
F. Final vector shape created by shape building.
比如这个例子,这个人物的舌头就是用椭圆和路径查找器来完成的。(具体过程看图就明白了,就不罗嗦了。)

20_Vector_Build_So_Far: 

It's smart to build your art using individual shapes. This makes the building go faster and it's more precise. You'll use the PathFinder palette to fuse them together later in the process.
用不同的面来绘制是很聪明的,这会让绘制更快更准确,最后你可以用路径查找器把这些面合并。

21_Rough_Out1, 22_Rough_Out2: 

When I lay down my initial vector paths I do what I call "Rough Building." This first image shows how it looks when I've completed a rough built path. The key is to get the points in the right locations and not worry about the actual paths between the points.
最初的路径绘制,我管他叫“粗模”。上面就是我的粗模完成时的样子。这个的关键是让点在正确的位置,而不要去在意点点之间的路径。(重要!!!)
I then go back and adjust the bezier handles to bend my paths into the correct position. It's important to note that I'm simply creating what I've already pre-determined in my drawing phase. There is no guess work, it's a precise shape following on top of a precise drawing. It does no good to draw something so loose it doesn't help you know where to place your points or shape your vectors paths. So get in the habit of drawing out your art before building your art.
之后再去调整曲线的位置。注意,到现在为止,我只是按照我的初稿去机械的矢量绘制,没有任何猜测的过程,如果一开始你的初稿很稀松,之后的矢量绘制就会让你不知道在哪里放点或者面。所以绘制精确的初稿是个好习惯。
This process is greatly accelerated using a plugin for Ai called "XTream Path" from CValley Software. 
(这个用到一个插件,自己调整也可以。)

23_Fluid_Beziers1, 24_Fluid_Beziers2, 25_Fluid_Beziers3, 26_Fluid_Beziers4: 

Fluid bezier curves start out roughly. The key is to place your anchor points in the prime locations in order to facilitate a graceful and fluid shape such as this wisp of smoke.
流线型的曲线,可以先粗绘出来。关键是锚点要在正确的位置以便产生流畅的曲线外形,比如这个烟就是。
Once you have the rough path points placed down you'll bend out the paths using "XTream Path" and then fix any broken points so they are smoothed points. Keeping the bezier curve handles aligned with each other assures precise elegant curves.
(用插件,可以自己调整)

27_All_Paths_Done: 

This shows all core vector shapes needed to produce the final art. I always make a copy at this stage and save it just to be safe.
所有的外形已经完成。这时候我一般会复制多一个,保存起来,保险。(好习惯!)

28_Shape_Building1, 29_Shape_Building2, 30_Shape_Building3, 31_Shape_Building4: 

Using the "Shape Building" method and the ellipse tool I create the eye of the character.
使用面绘制眼睛。

32_Pathfinder1, 33_Pathfinder2, 34_Pathfinder3, 35_Pathfinder4:

 Once you have all your core vector shapes you now will fuse them together using the PathFinder Palette. Select shapes and click "Unite" to fuse them into one compound path. Than fill with black and white.
有了所有外形,就可以用路径查找器合并,然后填上黑白色。

36_Progress_Refinement1, 37_Progress_Refinement2, 38_Progress_Refinement3, 39_Fleshing_Out_Process, 40_B&W_Worked_Out, 41_Art_Directing_Self: 



Even though you draw out all your art before you build it there is still room to improve your art as you go through the entire creative process. So learn to scrutinize your art, become your own art director and look for areas that you can adjust and improve on.
尽管之前有精确的手绘初稿,但是矢量稿仍有改进空间,这个时候就要从整体来看。学着检查你的作品,就好像你是导演一样,寻找可改进修正的空间。
I noticed the curves in the eye were kind of flat and the end tapered too much at the point. So I went in and adjusted the bezier curves to fix the vector shapes and improve the clarity. This is a good creative habit to get into.
眼睛有点问题,我就修正了一下。
Itemizing your build process like this allows you to notice areas needing improvement as you go through the creative process and will help you to art direct yourself more effectively.
这个过程很锻炼人的设计能力,多进行这方面的练习有助于设计修为的提升。

42_Coloring_Begins, 43_Drawing_Out_Shading1, 44_Drawing_Out_Shading2, 45_Drawing_Out_Shading3, 46_Shader_Scanned: 



Once I have my base art done I figure out my color palette and start filling my vector shapes with color, creating blends to give depth and detail.
有了修正稿就要填色,然后绘制阴影等细节。
Even though I build my art digitally I still go back and forth between analog and digital methods throughout the creative process. I print my base vector art out and literally draw out the shading, and the highlights (shown in red), for my character art. This allows me to experiment with things easier and formulate a new foundation to build the next stage of vectors upon.
我会把修正稿打印出来,手绘阴影和高光。这是下一阶段的基础。
I'll then scan this back in and use it as my template to build out my vector shapes.
绘制完成后扫描出来,再进行矢量绘制。

47_Building_Shading1, 48_Building_Shading2, 49_Building_Shading3, 50_Final_Character_Art:

Just like the core artwork I build the shading and highlight details based on my hand drawn scan.
跟之前一样,我绘制出阴影高光。
I'm often asked how I determine colors and shading etc. On this character his skin is white and because he's a subversive character I avoided the common blue tones and kept them grey instead. For this style the coloring is basic and the shading and highlights tend to have a three step process. For example the shorts are:
常常有人问我怎么选择颜色。在这个作品中,他的皮肤是白色,因为他是一个颠覆性的形象,所以我把一般的蓝色调换成灰色。这种风格颜色是基本的,阴影和高光有三个层次。比如:
- Base Color: Red (C0, M100, Y100, K3) 基本色:红
- Shading Color: Darker Red  (C5, M100, Y100, K25) 阴影:暗红
- Highlight Color: Red %60 Tint 高光:60%红

This illustration style is more simplistic like what you'd see on a t-shirt. On more complex illustrations the same principle applies but is aided by use of gradients, transparency, and blend mode settings to pull off a greater degree of detailing and effects.
这种形式如果应用在T-恤上很纯粹干净。也可以用渐变、透明度、混合模式等等来增加其他的效果。

51_Splatters, 52_Final_Art_Splattered, 53_Final_Artwork: 

Part the of the allure of subversive art like this is the shock value. Why would a lovable character be welding a bloody knife? Who knows, it just looked cool and fit with a dastardly vermin person.
为什么一个娇滴滴的形象要变成拿着把血淋淋的刀?谁知道,可能看起来很cool,适合坏蛋的形象吧。
I wanted to play off of that. So I created a nice splatter texture. A little black Tempera paint splattered on some cardboard in my garage sufficed. I then scanned it in and created a bitmap tiff I placed into my drawing program and colorized. I also experimented with other textures but ultimately didn't use them.
我想玩玩这个家伙,所以我决定给他加点喷溅的纹理。于是我把颜料随意的泼在纸板上,有满意的,扫描下来,变一下颜色,放在我的作品中。
To off-set the character from the background a bit I copied the black silhouette shape of the character and pasted it to the back filling it with white and setting the stroke thick to create the white halo effect.

为了突出他的形象,我复制了一个外轮廓,然后偏移路径,填充白色。



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